Cities and Innovation Ecosystems: creating urban spaces for sustainable transformation and systemic innovation

maps-led

Running alongside the International Research Week (IRW) hosted by the University of Salford, the MAPS-LED Workshop is a milestone of the wider MAPS-LED project, looking at how Smart Specialization Strategies can be translated into spatially-oriented local development policies. Since 2015 SOBE has been involved in the HORIZON 2020 4 years’ project MAPS-LED, a Multidisciplinary Approach to Plan Smart Specialisation Strategies for Local Economic Development. The project links four EU universities (PAU – University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Italy, coordinator; SOBE, University of Salford, UK; FOCUS, La Sapienza, Rome, Italy and Aalto, Helsinki, Finland) and two USA universities (Northeastern University, Boston, MA and San Diego State University, CA) and is aimed at researching strategies for implementing smart specialisation as a key element for place-driven regeneration policies for local economic development. The Workshop aims at evaluating the preliminary findings coming from the research question on how sustainability can be achieved in innovation policies, enabling social innovation and civic activation to trigger inclusive and equitable development. The scope is to enhance the potential impact of the research by involving external experts and potential local users in the mid-term assessment stages of the research process. Building on the concept of co-creativity as key- trigger for achieving systemic innovation, the workshop will be run as an open conference, during which international speakers will discuss the theoretical issues raised by the project, complemented by a stakeholders’ workshop and a focus group aimed at gathering insights and suggestions to refine the research outcomes.

12th September 2017, Crescent Campus. CHAPMAN 5. Co-creating the concept. Open session

9:15      Claudia Trillo, SOBE Unit coordinator. Preliminary paper presentation: creating spaces for sustainable
urban transformation and systemic innovation.

9:45      Philip Mc Cann, University of Groningen. Regional devolution and S3

10:15     Nico Calavita, SDSU Unit coordinator.  Sustainability and Equity in Innovation on Urban Regeneration

11:15     Raquel Ortega-Argilés, University of Birmingham. Placegrounded development and sustainable
innovation

11:45     Bruno Monardo, FOCUS Unit coordinator. Civic engagement, social innovation and new styles of ‘Urban Centers’

13:20     Carmelina Bevilacqua, MAPS LED coordinator, PAU Unit. The Urban Dimension of S3: insights from
MAPS-LED

13:50     Anna Laura Palazzo, FOCUS. Towards implementing S3. Current Dynamics and obstacles in the Lazio
Region

14:20     Gabriel Rissola, S3 Platform. Place- based Innovation Ecosystems: Espoo Innovation Garden and Aalto University (Skype connection)

14:40     Nerea Aizpurua, European Commission, DG Research & Innovation. Synergies between H2020 and the

European Structural and Investment Funds, and their potential to assist the implementation of the smart specialisation strategies (Skype connection)

15:30     Gorka Espiau, ALC & McGill University, Montreal: S3 -The Bilbao/Basque approach

16:00     Sara Mruz, Kendall CIC, Boston: Innovation hubs – The CIC at Kendall

16:30     Clare Devaney, SOBE unit – The GM Innovation Ecosystem

17:00     Field Trip to central Manchester (outside of the campus)

– Visit to The Federation & presenting M4/Citizen-i/Impact Hub GM (visit hosted by Emer Coleman, Director of Engagement at Coop Digital)

– Visit to PlantNOMA Makerspace & The Pilcrow, a community ‘self-built’ and cooperative pub (visit hosted by Ben Young, MD of PlantNOMA and OhOK Ltd)

13th September 2017 – NEW ADELPHI THEATRE / CHAPMAN 4 – Co-creating the concept implementation

9:00      Welcome coffee and registration of the participant*

9:45      Opening remarks from Chris Fletcher, Marketing and Policy Director, Greater Manchester Chamber of Commerce 

10:05     Introductory session: Building a Strong Economy *

Highlighting from a local government, education and business perspective what the strengths, challenges and actions are for the sector to build a strong and robust northern economy

Professor Hisham Elkadi, Dean of the School of the Built Environment, Salford University

Clive Memmott, Chief Executive, Greater Manchester Chamber of Commerce

Mike Blackburn, Chair, Greater Manchester Local Enterprise Partnership

Michelle Humphreys, Operations Director, Mace {invited}

 10:20     Transport and Infrastructure requirements-mapping the digital, road, rail, port and air necessities of the economy

Introductory Presentation: Andy Burnham, Mayor of Greater Manchester

Panel discussion participants: Andy Burnham, Mayor of Greater Manchester, Val Shawcross, Deputy Mayor of Transport of London, Ruth Jackson, Founder and Principal, Ruth Jackson Planning, Leigh Carter MSc FCIOB, Fellow of the CIOB, Senior Project Manager at Mace Group, John Duckworth, Managing Director UK & EMEA, Euan Mills, Urban Design and Planning Lead at Future Cities Catapult, Mo Perkins, Technical Services Director,  Infrastructure Services, Skanska UK Ltd

CHAPMAN 4

Panel chaired by Clare Devaney, SOBE, Discussant for Panels 1 & 2:  Phil Brown, Professor of Social Change, SHUSU, Salford University; Discussant for Panel 3: Professor Terrence Fernando, Director of UoS ThinkLab 

11.15     Panel 1 – ‘Smart Citizens’: People-powered innovation

Jon Alexander, CEO New Citizenship Project

Rowan Conway, Director of Innovation, Royal Society of Arts

Eve Holt, Founder, DivaManc/ OurGM

Luis Petrikorena, Director of Open Government for the Basque Country

 13:15     Panel 2 – ‘A Health-building Economy’: Health as a Social Movement

Alan Higgins, Director of Public Health, Oldham MBC

Neil McInroy, Chief Executive, Centre for Local Economic Strategies (CLES)

Viv Slack, Founder of Street Support

Professor Paul Townsend, Associate Dean, Faculty of Biology, Medicine & Health, University of Manchester

14.00     Panel 3 – ‘Makers and Changemakers’: Making in the 4th industrial revolution

Gorka Espiau – Professor of Practice, McGill U, Montreal & ALC (Uof the Basque Country) Senior Fellow.

Rupert Greenhalgh – Principal Economist, GMCA

Rose Marley – CEO of Sharp Futures, Manchester

Alberto Masetti-Zannini – Strategy Director, Impact Hub Kings Cross & Chair of Impact Hub Milan

15:00     Discussion: MAPS LED team  

17:00     Papers IRW presentation, chaired by Mohammed Agbali, SOBE. Discussant: Athina Moustaka, SOBE

Carmelina Bevilacqua – Smart Specialisation Strategy: The Territorial Dimension Of Research And Innovation Regional Policies (Authors: Bevilacqua C., Provenzano V., Pizzimenti P., Maione C.)

Claudia Trillo – Towards an assessment methodology for Smart Specialisation Strategies: Spatial Ecosystem for Innovators’ Hotspots (Author: Trillo C.)

Alfonso Spisto – Regional Policies for clusters formation and reinforcement: the cases of San Diego (CA, USA) and Boston (MA, USA). (Authors: Bevilacqua C., Spisto A., Cappellano C.)

Pasquale Pizzimenti – Nature-Based And Innovation-Led Urban Regeneration: A Hypothesis Of Green District For The Metropolitan City Of Reggio Calabria (Authors: Massimo D. E, Bevilacqua C., Pizzimenti P., Maione C.)

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Behar konplexuei, erantzun berritzaileak

Gorka Espiau, Olatz Olaso eta Eider Alustiza, aurkezpenean.
Gorka Espiau, Olatz Olaso eta Eider Alustiza, aurkezpenean. / DV
  • Urrian Donostian egingo den ‘Berrikuntza sozialaren bideak’ jardunaldia aurkeztu du Emun kooperatibak, bertan mintzatuko den Gorka Espiau adituarekin batera

Urriaren 25a urruti dago, baina hitzordu interesgarriak aurretik prestatzea komeni denez, berrikuntza soziala zer eta zertan den eta gizartegintzan nola eragin dezakeen jakin nahi dutenek garaiz apuntatu beharko lukete data, egun horretan, 2017ko urriaren 25ean, asteakenarekin, egingo baita Donostiako Tabakaleran ‘Berrikuntza sozialaren bideak’ jardunaldia.

Aurten 20 urte bete dituen Emun kooperatibak antolatutako jardunaldia astearte honetan aurkeztu dute Emuneko zuzendari Olatz Olasok, jardunaldia antolatzen ari den Eider Alustizak eta hizlari izango den Gorka Espiauk. Espiau, hain zuzen, gizartearen arlo oso desberdinetan praktika berri eta eraldatzaileak ezartzeko bideak eskaintzen dituen ikuspegi horretan aditua da. Berrikuntza sozialaren eremuan erreferente eta aintzindari den The Young Foundation-eko zuzendaria da Espiau, eta Agirre Lehendakaria Center-eko kide ere bada. Aurkezpenean azaldu duen bezala, ‘berrikuntza soziala’ adiera eta hurbilketa ugari dituen kontzeptu zabala da, eta zabaltasun horrek berak bilakatzen du ezinbesteko, hain zuzen ere, «oso praktika interesgarriak» ahalbidetzen ari den jardunbidea zedarritzea, eta horren inguruko gogoeta sustatzea.

«Gure gizarteak dituen arazo, erronka eta behar berri edo konplexuei erantzun berritzailea ematea» da, Emunen hitzak erabilita, berrikuntza soziala. Ez nolanahikoa, eta ez «edozein preziotan», justizia soziala eta berdintasuna bezalako baloreetan oinarritua baizik. Emunen kasuan, berritasun soziala ez da teoria, eguneroko jardunean txertatutako zerbait baizik, arlo horretan diharduelako euskararen biziberritzearen inguruko zein beste eremu batzuetako (gizartearen aniztasuna, herritarren parte hartzea, kulturaren kudeaketa…) proiektuetan. Barrura begira ere printzipio horien arabera funtzionatzen saiatzen dira.

Olatz Olasok, hain zuzen, Emunen bilakaeran eta ibilbidean txertatu du gaiarekiko interesa, hizkuntzen kudeaketan eta euskararen inguruko lanean -batez ere eremu sozioekonomikoan- hasi zen kooperatibak duela hamarkada bat ekin baitzion berrikuntza sozialaren inguruko lan zabalagoari, ikusirik euskararen biziberritzearen arloan zein kooperatibenean abiatutako ekimen gehienek asko zeukatela berrikuntza sozialetik, deitura horren pean garatzeb ez baziren ere. Azken batean, gogoratu du Olasok, «behar sozial bati erantzuten zitzaion, modu berriak erabilita».

Egun bakarreko jardunaldiaren xedea izango da, hortaz, berrikuntza sozialari buruz hausnartzea eta Euskal Herrian dauden zenbait praktika ezagutzea, esperientzia zehatzetara hurbilduz horien protagonisten eskutik, formatu berritzaile samarrean. Adituen hitza ekarriko dute hitzaldi nagusia eskainiko duen Yayo Herrero antropologo eta aktibista ekofeministak eta jardunaldia itxiko duen mahai inguruan parte hartuko duten hiru lagunek. Mahaiaren bueltan, ‘Euskal berrikuntza sozialaren etorkizuneko lan ildoak’ gai hartuta, Gorka Espiau bera, Itsaso Olaizola (UEU eta EHU) eta Jose Mari Luzarraga (Mondragon Team Academy) eseriko dira.

Txikitik eragin

«Gizartearen beharreki modu berritzailean erantzuteko, lankidetzan bideraturiko erronkek gizarteari ekarpen aberatsagoa egiten diote eta segur aski, arrakastarako aukerak zabaltzen dituzte», diote. Ez dira ari maila handi-handiko ekimenei buruz, «txikitik eragitea» posible ez ezik desigarrarria ere bada-eta.

Horregatik, berrikuntza-ariketa desberdinetako protagonistei emango zaie hitza 10×10 hitzaldietan: 10 eragile, 10na minututan euren esperientziaren berri eman dezaten. Hor izango dira Fagor, Baigorriko Etxauzia proiektua, Ulma, Emun bera edota Debagoienan, Garesen, Txantrean, Azkoitian, Zarautzen eta Donostian garatzen ari diren esperientziak, jarduera-eremu oso desberdinetakoak.

Izan ere, Euskal Herriak bide dezente du egina berrikuntza sozialaren eremuan, arlo guztietan sortu eta garatu baitira betidanik gizartetik sortutako irtenbide berriak, horren beharrei erantzuteko; behartuta, gehienetan, ardura horiek ez baitzituen bere inork hartzen bere gain.

Une honetan, dena den, egoera paradoxiko samar batera heltzeko zorian egon gaitezte, Gorka Espiauren ustez. «Kontzeptua izugarrizko indarra ari da hartzen nazioartean. Europako Batzordea, esaterako, dimentsio transbertsala ari zaio ematen, eta laguntza-deialdietan ere ari da txertatzen», dio. Denbora kontua zen, beraz, horri erreparatzea eta kanpotik ekartzea etxean geneukana, «hemengoarekin kontrastatu gabe».

Horregatik da garrantzitsua berandu baino lehen «bertako gizarte berrikuntza tradizioan oinarritutako eta bertan sortutako modeloak garatzea», hemengo «aukera izugarriak eta ekosistema berezia» baliatzeko. Hainbat arlotan etorkizunak zein kolore duen ikusita, aurrera begira erabakigarria izan daiteke arlo askotara eraman daitekeen jarduteko modu hori garatzea.

Egiten dena partekatzea eta gogoetari bide ematea da lehen urratsa. Gero ikusi beharko da «nola generatu dinamika berriak kolaborazio-sistemak sortzeko, nola prototipatu, nola eraman eskala desbedinetara» eta «nola txertatu modelo horiek lurraldearen garapenean». Jakinik joera nagusia dela erakunde publikoak, erakunde sozialak eta denetariko enpresak barne hartzen dituzten «modelo hibridoak» sustatzea. Eta komeni dela berrikuntza sozialaren aldeko apustu sendoa egitea modak kontzeptuaren esanahia eta gaitasun eraldatzailea irentsi eta antzutu baino lehen.

Basque Transformation Narratives

At the end of the 1970s, the Basque Country was emerging from forty years of dictatorship in which any expression of local culture had been repressed. The area was experiencing an industrial collapse that generated high unemployment and an international image directly associated with terrorist violence. Despite these circumstances, Bilbao and the Basque society managed to transform its economy and industrial base. It now leads international rankings in advanced manufacturing, education and healthcare, and has also generated a balanced distribution of wealth. This article aims to share some of the key elements that made this extraordinary transformation possible.

The Basque case presents a unique case of systemic transformation under extreme circumstances. This experience involves the “Bilbao Guggenheim Effect”, the Mondragon Cooperative and social economy ecosystem, Michael Porter´s cluster strategy, the local advanced manufacturing and technology alliances, a basic income policy, the recovery of the Basque language, and the highest concentration of Michelin Guide awarded restaurants per square metre, among many other interconnected initiatives.

Since the end of the Spanish dictatorship, self-government has been a key driver of the socio-economic transformation of Basque society. A democratically-elected local Parliament and government administration took control over health, education, security, and economic planning; and local governing bodies were re-established with the capacity to collect and allocate taxes. The strategies and projects promoted by these self-governing institutions helped to design and implement a model of sustainable human development, rooted in economic growth and social cohesion.

While the tax system is similar to the European average, the Basque Country has enjoyed high income equality rates for decades. The situation has changed since 2008 due to the financial crisis, but this data allows us to think that it is possible to complement the necessary distribution of wealth through taxes with the generation of wealth in a distributed manner. A more equalitarian salary policy and strong solidarity mechanisms help to provide real and large scale “pre-distribution” of wealth.

When the social, institutional, and business protagonists of this transformation are questioned about the key elements to understanding the extraordinary responses to very negative circumstances in a very short period of time, they highlight the importance of a “values based strategy”. While current innovation and competitive models are built on instrumental rationality, the Basque experience demonstrates that large scale and strategic projects need to be interconnected by a cultural ‘software’ that is written with local values and a deeper aspirational goal.

Compared to similar post-industrial situations, the key factor of this transformation seems to be associated with the cultural dimension of a long-term strategy, rather with the more visible hardware that can be identified in the above mentioned initiatives. The software, or cultural component of the innovation process, can be therefore interpreted as the set of values and beliefs shared by a particular community, city or territory and the way they are expressed in collective narratives and behaviours, ultimately conditioning strategic decisions and their implementation. A systemic approach to the great challenges that social innovation sets out to tackle requires a strong connection between both, operating in a similar way to social movements instead of continuing to apply the traditional top-down project management approach.

Identifying Our Stories

The stories that we tell ourselves about what is possible and what is not need to be better understood and incorporated into the core strategy when working to transform communities, cities, or regions.

We need to identify what stories we are telling about ourselves. Are those limiting or amplifying existing opportunities and challenges for territorial transformation? And most importantly, what is the transformational narrative that can connect us?

In the Bilbao case, for example, it is crucial to deconstruct why local institutions even considered it possible to convince the Guggenheim Foundation to locate their new flagship museum in a city that was devastated by the industrial collapse, rampant unemployment and weekly terrorist attacks. It would also be helpful to understand the driving force powering the Mondragon strategy that is successfully competing with the most advanced industrial corporations applying a totally different rationale in regards to decision making (one worker, one vote), salary policy (1 to 7 pay differential instead of 1 to 300 in similar size companies), and inter-solidarity mechanisms (Mondragon recently relocated 2,000 workers in 24 months). This icon of the social economy in the Basque Country cannot be understood apart from its territory, where the priority was generation of fair employment.

In contrast to decisions based on the search for optimisation through an exclusively instrumental approach, Mondragon applies a value-based decision-making process. There is vast evidence of the “Culture Lever” and  the strong correlation between corporate financial performance and the way values are practiced. Ron Carucci expresses this idea in a beautiful way by saying that “values hold the power to drive meaningful differences in performance by shaping a culture, and when misused, can undermine performance with toxic force.”

GorkaEspiau-graphic

In the Basque case, collective narratives were used to express local values as a mechanism of self-definition, informing attitudes, behaviors and ultimately, taking counter-cyclical strategic decisions. Identity building is a human process that combines local culture and values with historical facts in a non-objective way. Local communities and territories identify themselves with a certain set of values that can be found in those historical facts, but many other values and facts that could also be interpreted as part of their local identity are left aside. Identity building is therefore a social construction and an evolving process that can be positively or negatively channelled through cooperative action.

More effort needs to be made in order to understand why certain strategic decisions are taken and why territories like the Basque Country have responded in a very different way to the same challenges that many struggling cities and territories are facing. This story also suggests that those cities and territories who have been able to associate themselves with transformative values like equality, solidarity, self-responsibility, radical democracy, and resilience can become socially sustainable and more competitive. On the contrary, those who have allowed a negative narrative about themselves to emerge face much more serious problems to deal with the current global challenges.

Transformational Movements in 21st Century  Communities

Urban communities and 21st century citizens are demanding practical solutions to their growing, complex needs but if given the opportunity, joining a “city transformation movement” allows them to be part of a much more ambitious and mindful enterprise. These new transformational movements can only be co-created by generating a new narrative of transformation capable of connecting the identity of the territory with a “collective decision” to build a socially sustainable city that its residents are proud to be associated with, and proud to be living in.

The Basque case needs to be understood as a movement rather than the result of “expert groups”. Leadership was shared and spread out, and there was no single person, institution, or organization controlling the process. Many apparently disconnected initiatives were structurally linked in terms of the principles, values, and vision of the transformative goal. Operating as a transformation movement allowed Basque organizations, companies, and institutions to network together without setting up rigid or complex legal structures. They were a wide range of projects sharing a collective narrative of transformation. In other words, an extensive spectrum of individuals and organizations creating alternative narratives about their community and the possibility for change.

The Basque experience differs profoundly from most of the current regional competitiveness processes dominated by new forms of illustrated despotism. It is not a new mistake. Back in 1957, Michael Young explained the negative effects of public policies in East London because they were disconnected from the real needs and aspiration of the people they were supposed to help. The new urban planning projects broke up – unintentionally – the social networks of solidarity of the communities that had emigrated to the area; networks that had been established over generations.

Current models of social innovation applied to community transformation are still influenced by theories of change based on this type of despotism and the search for individual talent. Following the experience of large-scale technology companies, territorial innovation is supposed to be conditioned to the generation of the so-called  “black swans”. Applied to urban transformation, we look for the unexpected solution brought by a person or organization who should have an extraordinary talent or knowledge. Occasionally, this way of operating can contribute to identifying interesting initiatives. Most of the time, it is rare to document structural change.

Current innovation models thus tend to reinforce individuals and organisations that were previously empowered, and they do not show evidence of large scale and structural impact. We should invest more resources and efforts in understanding how local communities and institutions perceive their capacity for innovation and change. In poorer neighbourhoods, people do not usually feel empowered to play this role. The narrative imposed on them emphasises negative elements and the perception that change is not possible. At an individual level, it takes the form of a powerful meta-narrative: “Who am I to act in a different way?”

Systemic change only comes about when the entire community feels empowered to act in a different manner. These narratives of collective change can be found in the Basque case, but also in other places that have undergone very positive urban transformations like Medellin, Montreal, or Seoul. Instead of looking for rare ‘talent’ in exceptional individuals, the most advanced forms of urban transformation set out to empower an entire community so that everyone can act in an innovative way.

 

Article published by “Meeting of the Minds”

The stories we tell ourselves shape our society

Montréal in the Context of Trans-Atlantic Migration and Globalization

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Debate about migration is at the top of the political agenda in countries around the world. Current global conflicts are focusing public attention on coping with the influx of newcomers, particularly in urban areas where migrants and refugees are settling. As cities face the challenges of accommodating immigrants, Montreal offers a model for harnessing diversity to help build a more inclusive, safe, sustainable and globally competitive city.

The Canada Institute and the Urban Sustainability Laboratory of the Wilson Center and the Centre for Interdisciplinary Research on Montreal (CIRM) of McGill University hosted a really interesting   discussion on Montreal, the second largest francophone city in the world, and its experience with immigrant integration and cultural diversity in an urban setting.

A panel of interdisciplinary scholars from McGill University offered a historical and contemporary examination of public policies, practices, and events that have shaped the social, political, and cultural landscape of Montreal. Panelists  identified some obstacles and challenges to immigrant integration in the Montreal context and shared the initiatives and projects in favor of a more inclusive and participatory city. This is the link to watch the session.

Welcoming Remarks:
Frederic Tremblay, Director, Quebec Government Office in Washington

Speakers:
Gorka Espiau, McConnell Professor of Practice, CIRM, McGill (Via Skype)
Stephan Gervais, Scientific Coordinator, CIRM, McGill
Mary-Anne Poutanen, Professor, Québec Studies, McGill Institute for the Study of Canada
Will Straw, Professor, Department of Art History and Communication Studies, McGill
Discussant: Derek Hyra, Associate Professor and Founding Director, Metropolitan Policy Center, American University
Moderator: Blair Ruble, Vice President for Programs, and Director, Urban Sustainability Laboratory, Wilson Center

This meeting has been made possible with generous support from the Ministère of International Relations and La Francophonie, Quebec Government.

Social Innovation implications of the Mondragon cooperative experience

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The Young Foundation has published a new report on the Mondragon Cooperative experience. These are some additional thoughts about the implications for the social innovation field.

  • Competitiveness can be the best ally for implementing large scale social innovation ecosystems
  • Value-based decisions are rooted in Mondragon’s business model
  • A distributed system for wealth generation combined with fair taxation systems presents a pre-distribution alternative to fighting inequalities
  • MONDRAGON needs to be looked at as a social movement

1.- Competitiveness.

MONDRAGON shows us that competitiveness can be the best ally for implementing large scale social innovation ecosystems. In fact, MONDRAGON believe that they are more competitive because their social principles and practices.

Since the very first day Mondragon had to learn to compete head to head with large industrial companies in order to fulfil its social mission effectively. This is the reason why competitiveness has been naturally incorporated to its social innovation narrative and action. In fact, and despite its clear social impact, members of Mondragon prefer to be defined as a competitive company in the global market, rather than as a social, traditional company.

The social dimension of its functioning is not perceived as a peripheral element. To the contrary, it is rooted in Mondragon’s business model. This particular behaviour is consistent with various research demonstrating the greater impact of long term value-based-decisions, in opposition to exclusively instrumental decisions. In the case of Mondragon, its value system determines the company’s strategic decisions.

Mondragon´s social dimension is therefore inherently connected to competitiveness and differs with the traditional approaches to corporate social responsibility. Mondragon is not only a good company that distributes its benefits fairly. It is a more competitive company due to its social practices.

  1. – Mondragon as a social movement.

Mondragon has operated as a genuine social movement for the transformation of the valley with a great impact in the whole Basque territory. The logic and mechanisms connecting Mondragon under the corporation’s big umbrella – people, enterprises and institutions – cannot be exclusively understood from a traditional business approach.  The cooperative members feel part of something bigger than just a company. Some of then describe it as an experience, others as a family or a network, but its origin clearly responds to the necessity of creating a movement in favor of the social and economic transformation of the territory.

In practical terms, this movement approach has allowed them to channel internal competition in a positive way, as well as to maximize existing resources, align different strategies and constructing a transformation narrative that connects all the agents within the ecosystem in a deeper way, as compared to traditional corporate practices.

When seeking to understand Mondragon and other high-impact social innovation ecosystems, it is essential to look into the perspectives and the repertoire of actions associated to social movements. This allows different organizations and institutions to network collaboratively without the need of establishing rigid structures or complex legal agreements around a more sophisticated leadership (soft power), as well as performing radical democracy practices, based on values, common goals and narratives.

  1. – Replication.

 Mondragon cannot be dissociated from its territory. These cooperatives were born as a social and economic response to the necessities of a community that was struggling with an extremely difficult situation. For this reason, Mondragon’s cooperatives and companies are deeply tied to the valley’s little towns and neighbourhoods. This close connection leads them to a value based decision-making process that differs from traditional companies, especially with regard to long-term investments, creating a very resilient model.

For all these reasons, Mondragon cannot be replicated. In fact, many attempts to create similar experiences have systematically failed. However, this experience can help us better understand how social innovation ecosystems work and can also be an exceptional ally to other organizations and institutions who wish to foster territorial transformation processes incorporating large-scale and globally competitive business models.

For this purpose, it is absolutely necessary that systems change thinking and social innovation incorporate new methodologies to address the cultural dimension of territorial transformation processes. Ethnographic research aiming at capturing the value system and narratives operating in a particular territory can be a useful way to capture the “innovation software”. This knowledge will allow us to connect specific and interconnected initiatives (hardware) with the real demands of the community; but to that end, new methodologies that exponentially grow the number of people taking part in co-creation will need to be designed.

  1. – A new model of community innovation.

Mondragon cooperatives question and challenge the myth of the individual entrepreneur which is being uncritically adopted by many social innovation initiatives[1]. Instead of looking for the “talented” individual, implying that this is an exceptional gift, Mondragon proves that everyone can be innovative if the proper conditions are created. As a matter of fact, the company’s Founder used to talk about a “positive attitude” as the only required talent for innovation.

This way of understanding innovation at a community level is consistent with extensive research on community transformation processes[2].  Systemic changes can only take place when the community as a whole feels invited and empowered to act differently.

  1. – Distribution of wealth.

While the taxation system is similar to the European average, the Mondragon Valley and the Basque Country have enjoyed high equality rates for decades. The situation has changed since 2008 due to the financial crisis but this data allows us to think that it is possible to complement the necessary distribution of wealth through taxes with the generation of wealth in a distributed manner. Their salary policy, networking and cooperation mechanisms help to provide real and large scale “pre-distribution[2]” of wealth.

This is an example of how successful business can fairly generate and distribute wealth among companies and members to tackle the current rampant inequality.  The generation of distributed wealth combined with fair taxation systems becomes a vehicle for socioeconomic regional transformation. It also broadens our concept of how social innovation ecosystems can integrate wealth generation as a key mechanism for systemic change.

For the future, distributed manufacturing and other technological phenomena associated to cyber-industry will enable alternative models to foster competitive and socially balanced territories. Mondragon created 1000 new jobs last year, evidencing that industrial automation can also generate employment and equity.

  1. – Links with the local territory.

Mondragon cannot be understood dissociated from its territory. Cooperatives were born as a social and economic response to the necessities of a community that was struggling with an extremely difficult situation. For this reason, Mondragon’s cooperatives and companies are deeply tied to the valley’s little towns and neighborhoods. This close connection leads them to an alternative decision-making process that differs from traditional companies, especially with regard to long-term investments, and creates a very resilient model.

The companies of Mondragon are used to deliver positive responses to great crisis, such as the Fagor Electrodomésticos downturn or their very own birth. However, they present more difficulties to innovate in times of stability. It is easier for them to generate solidarity mechanisms when facing a specific difficulty or a common enemy than being open to new innovation systems when things are going well. The big challenge for social innovation ecosystems that have achieved good results in particular moments is to constantly reinvent themselves.

  1. – Equality.

The innovation ecosystem generated by Mondragon consists in a complex agent-network and several processes that operate on the basis of transparency, radical democracy and equality. These concepts are commonly used in the social innovation field, but unfortunately, there are few examples of successful, large scale business projects that incorporate principles such as: “one person, one vote”; sovereignty of the general assembly in strategic decisions; internal solidarity mechanisms; re-employment policies; commitment to low salary gaps, etc.

These strict transparency and democracy procedures could not exist without the commitment to equality between people and companies conforming Mondragon. It is impossible to understand the way public-private cooperation develops so naturally if we don’t take this core principle into account. By contrast, public-private collaborations which does not incorporate equality mechanisms and procedures can be easily manipulated in favor of the most powerful.

Mondragon’s experience presents deep implications to the way in which social innovation projects incorporate the fight against inequality to their narrative and actions. The best ally for the growing inequality is accepting the lack of alternatives. This experience shows us that competitive, large-scale models of fight against inequality are possible.

[1] The Entrepreneurial State. Mazzucato, M.

[2] “Bowling alone” Putnam, R.

[3] “The institutional foundations of middle-class democracy” Hacker, J.

La Innovación Social de Mondragón

cropped-img_1711.jpgThe Young Foundation acaba de publicar un informe sobre el impacto de las cooperativas de Mondragón desde el punto de vista de la Innovación social. Estas son algunas reflexiones adicionales sobre las implicaciones que tiene esta experiencia del denominado Caso Vasco y sus posibilidades para ser proyectada hacia el futuro.

1.- Competitividad.

Las cooperativas de Mondragón tuvieron que aprender a competir con grandes empresas industriales de igual a igual para poder cumplir con su misión social desde el primer día. Por este motivo, incorpora la competitividad al discurso y acción de la innovación social de forma natural. De hecho, sus miembros prefieren definirse como parte de una empresa capaz de competir en el mercado global más que como una empresa social tradicional a pesar de su evidente impacto socio-económico.

Sin embargo, la dimensión social de su funcionamiento (las prácticas sociales presentadas en este informe) no se entienden como un elemento secundario. Están enraizadas en el modelo de negocio. Este comportamiento avala los estudios que evidencian el mayor impacto de las decisiones fundamentadas en valores respecto a las decisiones exclusivamente instrumentales en el medio y largo plazo. Mondragón evidencia la centralidad del sistema de valores a la hora de comprender sus decisiones estratégicas.

La dimensión social está, por lo tanto, intrínsecamente unida a la competitividad y se diferencia de los planteamientos tradicionales ligados a la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa. Mondragón no es sólo una buena empresa que distribuye mejor sus beneficios; la corporación es más competitiva gracias a sus prácticas sociales.

2.- Mondragón como movimiento social.

Mondragón es una red de empresas sociales pero también ha funcionado como un verdadero movimiento de transformación en el territorio. Las lógicas e instrumentos que han conectado a las personas, empresas e instituciones del territorio bajo el paraguas de la corporación no pueden comprenderse exclusivamente desde una perspectiva de empresarial tradicional. Los miembros de las cooperativas expresan claramente que se sienten parte de algo más que una empresa. Algunos lo definen como una experiencia, otros como familia o red, pero su comportamiento responde a la necesidad de generar un movimiento de transformación socio-económica en el territorio.

En términos prácticos, este funcionamiento como movimiento permite canalizar la competencia interna de forma positiva, maximizar los recursos existentes, alinear las diferentes estrategias en una misma dirección y construir una narrativa de transformación que conecta a todos los agentes del ecosistema de una forma más profunda que las prácticas corporativas tradicionales.

Es fundamental a la hora de comprender Mondragón y otros ecosistemas de innovación social de gran impacto que incorporemos la perspectiva y repertorio de actuación asociado a los movimientos sociales en el siglo XXI. El funcionamiento como movimiento de transformación permite a organizaciones e instituciones trabajar colaborativamente en red pero sin la necesidad de establecer estructuras rígidas o complejos acuerdos legales en torno a un liderazgo más sofisticado (soft power) y prácticas de democracia radical que se construyen sobre objetivos, valores y discursos compartidos.

3.- Réplica.

El ecosistema de Mondragón no puede replicarse miméticamente por la complejidad de factores culturales que condicionan su desarrollo. De hecho, han existido muchos intentos fallidos por crear experiencias similares. Sin embargo, su experiencia puede ayudarnos a comprender mejor el funcionamiento de los ecosistemas de innovación social y sobre todo puede ser un aliado excepcional para otras organizaciones e instituciones que deseen impulsar procesos de transformación territorial que deseen incorporar modelos de negocio competitivos en el mercado global y de larga escala.

Con este objetivo, es absolutamente necesario que la innovación social incorpore nuevas metodologías para incorporar la dimensión cultural a los procesos de transformación territorial. La investigación etnográfica sobre el sistema de valores y narrativas que están operando en un territorio (software del proceso de innovación) nos puede ayudar para conectar las iniciativas concretas (hardware) con las demandas reales de la comunidad pero necesitamos nuevas metodologías que aumenten exponencialmente el número de personas que participan en los procesos de co-creación y prototipado de nuevos productos y servicios.

4.- Un nuevo modelo de innovación comunitaria.

Mondragón pone en cuestión el mito del emprendedor individual a la hora de generar procesos de transformación territorial que está siendo adoptado de forma acrítica por muchas iniciativas de innovación social[1].

En lugar de buscar el “talento” en personas excepcionales, Mondragón demuestra que todas las personas pueden comportarse de forma innovadora si se generan las condiciones para ello. De hecho, su fundador hablaba de la actitud positiva de la persona como el único requisito necesario para innovar.

Esta forma de entender la innovación en el ámbito comunitario es consistente con muchas otras investigaciones desarrolladas en otros procesos de transformación comunitaria. Los cambios sistémicos sólo se producen cuando el conjunto de la comunidad se siente invitado o empoderado a actuar de una forma diferente.

5.- Distribución de la riqueza.

El valle de Mondragón y Euskal Herria en general presentan altas tasas de equidad a pesar de que el sistema impositivo sea similar a la media europea. Desde 2008 se ha producido un cambio de tendencia muy negativo hacia mayores cotas de desigualdad pero la experiencia vivida nos permite pensar que se puede complementar la necesaria distribución de la riqueza a través de los impuestos con la generación de la riqueza de forma distribuida. Su política de salarios, el trabajo en red, los mecanismos de inter-cooperación reparten la riqueza desde su origen y evitan las tendencias hacia la desigualdad.

De cara al futuro, la manufactura distribuida y otros fenómenos tecnológicos asociados a la Industria 4.0 permitirán desarrollar modelos alternativos para impulsar territorios competitivos y equilibrados socialmente si se complementan con ecosistemas de innovación social similares al generado por las cooperativas. La robotización puede ser aprovechada positivamente si se aplican los principios de la producción distribuida y se combinan con las prácticas de la economía social.

6.- Vinculación al territorio.

Mondragón no puede entenderse de forma disociada al territorio. Las cooperativas nacen como una respuesta socio-económica a las necesidades de una comunidad que estaba sufriendo una situación de dificultad extrema. Por este motivo, sus empresas están ancladas de forma profunda en sus pueblos y barrios. Esta relación les lleva a tomar decisiones diferentes a empresas tradicionales en relación con las inversiones a largo plazo y genera un modelo verdaderamente resiliente.

Las empresas de Mondragón están acostumbradas a responder muy positivamente a grandes momentos de crisis como la de su nacimiento o la de Fagor Electrodomésticos pero tienen más dificultades para innovar en momentos de estabilidad. Es más fácil generar mecanismos de solidaridad interna ante una dificultad o enemigo común que abrirse a nuevos sistemas de innovación abierta y cooperación cuando las cosas no van tan mal. El gran reto de los ecosistemas de innovación social que han conseguido buenos resultados en determinados momentos es reinventarse constantemente.

7.- La igualdad.

El ecosistema de innovación generado por Mondragón está compuesto por una compleja red de agentes y procesos que funcionan en base a criterios de transparencia, democracia radical e igualdad.

Se trata de conceptos a los que nos referimos desde la innovación social con mucha frecuencia pero desgraciadamente existen muy pocos ejemplos a nivel internacional de proyectos empresariales tan grandes y exitosos que incorporen principios de funcionamiento como el de “una persona, un voto”, la soberanía de la asamblea de miembros a la hora de tomar las decisiones estratégicas, los mecanismos de solidaridad interna, las políticas de recolocación de los trabajadores o la apuesta por el equilibrio salarial.

Estos estrictos procedimientos de transparencia y democracia no se podrían construir sin el compromiso con la igualdad entre las personas y organizaciones que forman la corporación. Resulta imposible entender la forma en la que la cooperación publico privada se desarrolla de forma tan natural sin este elemento transversal al sistema de valores. Por el contrario, la cooperación público privada puede ser fácilmente manipulada en otro tipo de colaboraciones en las que no se pueden construir mecanismos y procedimientos de igualdad entre los agentes.

Esta experiencia tiene unas implicaciones profundas de cara a la forma en la que los proyectos de innovación social incorporan la lucha contra la desigualdad no sólo en su discurso sino en la acción interna de cada día.

Mondragón nos demuestra que tanto a nivel organizativo, en el modelo de empresa pero también en el ámbito territorial, se pueden construir modelos de lucha contra la desigualdad que son competitivos y de larga escala.

El principal obstáculo en la lucha contra la desigualdad es pensar que no hay alternativa.

[1] “The Entrepreneurial State”. Mazzucato, M.